The city people, in the end, were tired of struggles. It happened then that a merchant — or a banker or a nobleman — richer and more powerful than the others, allied himself with the small people, after promising better conditions of life, and became master of the city. In this way the Municipalities were transformed into Lordships. Citizens no longer chose their leaders.
It is not easy to be free, the citizens of the Municipalities tried to do it from 1200 to 1400 AD, but their attempts resulted in a failure. However, during these turbulent centuries, some great Italians stood out for their spirit and their works.