The real recipients of the edicts of 1591 and 93, promulgated by Ferdinando I ° dei Medici, better known as Leggi Livornine, were the Sephardic Jews from the Iberian peninsula, Spanish, therefore, but above all Portuguese. Thanks to the laws of Ferdinand, the Jews obtained freedom of trade, religious practice, possession and publication of books. The Livornese publishing became polyglot and reproduced the babel of languages ​​of a free port city, full of life, cultural exchanges and businesses.

From the beginning of the seventeenth century a community of Marrani settled in our city. They had…